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Full text of "Lacquer, oriental and western, ancient and modern"

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LACQUER 

ORIENTAL AND WESTERN 
ANCIENT AND MODERN 



THE COOPER UNION MUSEUM 
FOR THE ARTS OF DECORATION 



ACKNOWLEDGMENT 

In assembling material for the exhibition, the Museum has received 
most helpful suggestions and information from the following, to 
whom are given most grateful thanks: 

Mrs. Alison Bisgood 
C. C. Cunningham 
Miss Mary U. Date 
Martin J. Desmoni 
Leon Grinberg 
Miss Josephine Howell 
Fritz Low-Beer 
Miss Nola Luxford 
Mrs. John Ritter 
Spencer Samuels 
Miss Dorothea C. Shipley 
George L. Stout 
kojiro tomita 
Gordon Ware 



Copyright 1951 by The Cooper Union Museum for the Arts of Decoration 



INTR^ DUCTION 



Man's tectonic instinct enjoys one property not granted other 
creatures. As soon as raw substance is formed under the hand an 
utterly basal force discharges into otherwise automatic movements, 
driving them until the outcome exceeds the merely practical. In the process 
of kneading clay, weaving fibres, carving wood and chiselling stone, this un- 
failing gift directs and modifies; and shape, texture, surface and contour are 
released from inertia to persevere as if they possessed a life of their own. 
Constructive impulses are inseparable from life itself: their unquestioned, 
resistless ends may be seen in the hive-bee's hexagonal cell, the tailor-bird's 
nest stitched with cotton thread, and the cteni^'a's silk-lined burrow with 
its trap-door lid. Mysterious and daunting to our vanity these predestined 
structures may be. Built season after perpetual season, without plan, language 
or deliberation, though geometrically faultless and functionally calculated, 
still they are only efficient. The symmetrical filaments of a spider's web 
constitute a brilliant appliance, but a work of pure utility. Final technique- 
aimed solely at the capture of prey— having been reached, improvement 
stops, and the sagacious engineer retires. But in man, that often abject and 
sometimes exalted medley of unreasoning promptings and incorruptible 
idea, the brute impulse to organize and to perfect is graced by a realization 
of the possible glory of his own labors. Once he grasps the adze or the celt, 
once the wood or flint adjusts to his exertion and the block alters, man per- 
ceives the transformation from mass to fabric. The change is half irresistible, 
half controlled; the object assumes qualities, a character, and to refine these 
becomes a source of emotional consummation and of intellectual confidence. 
This yearning for harmony beyond order, for content beyond physical use, 
for the extra sensuous strength that gives meaning to blank and inanimate 
things, is the genesis of art. Permeated by its maker's warmth, restrained by 
his mind, yet alive with its own destination, the object communicates, and 
resolves into an experience transmitted and received. But the dual issues of 
creation and understanding are not achieved by sentience alone. From their 
first prophetic urges to their culmination, the work of art and the artist must 
both sanction and prevail, and compound their traits through mutual adap- 
tation, which is not passive, but vigilant and resolute. No work of art ever 
originated in submission, by the artist to his material, or conversely; mastery 
does not imply abasement. Out of a sequence of interactions between maker 
and thing made, between inspiration and proficiency, inventiveness and 
caution, and always with the purpose of imparting feeling and thought, in 
man's hands the thing created becomes the likeness of his spirit. 

3 



In his adventure man has learned, not what he might, but something. He 
learned very early that what is lasting is preferable to what is temporary: 
work and replacement are saved thereby. Yet the search for the durable, 
though prescribed largely by economy, has another motive. Man's expres- 
sions of himself, as crucial records, lessons, stimulants or warnings, deserve 
safe-keeping. Representing meaningful concerns which can be sensed and 
interpreted by others, they hold a trace of magic, or are prized as revelations. 
The messages proclaimed, of their maker's toil and attainment, are part of 
that human chronicle with which man documents his faith in himself. 

Throughout the two hemispheres grow about a hundred and twenty 
species of the genus Rhus. It ranges in size from a shrub to a low tree, and 
though it may be known variously as the Wig-tree or elder dogwood, it is the 
sumac of unfriendly reputation, for the sap is an irritant poison. In the 
provinces of Central and Southern China, and in Japan, one species, the 
Rhus vernicifera, is the plant from which lacquer, strictly speaking, is 
derived. Yet "lacquer" as a finish is not confined to this botanical product. 
We apply to synthetic varnishes, to opaque oil blends, as well as to the 
vegetable resin, a word which is only a numeral, the Hindi hundred thou- 
sand, a "lakh." In English, "lac" refers to a second unrelated harvest, the 
incrustation deposited on certain East Indian trees by the insect coccus lacca. 
Myriads of the larvae attach themselves, especially to fig-trees, feeding upon 
the sap, immuring themselves in a resinous secretion. The shellac of com- 
merce is this crust freed of coloring matter and liquefied with a solvent, 
usually alcohol. When referring to the decorative surfaces of European 
furniture, "lacquer" has no connection save in appearance with the other 
two classes. European lacquer, when not an imported article, is an artificial 
mixture of copal resin, fatty oils, turpentine, and pigment. Finally, there 
is the lacquer of Mexico and South America, a finish which may be obtained 
from another kind insect, the aje or coccus axin, or from several species of 
Trachylobium, at whose roots lumps of the deposit are found. 

When we speak, therefore, of "lacquer," we can mean four or five quite 
dissimilar materials. But each is a preservative: as such it is an index to many 
categories of things man has considered worthy of permanence. And lacquer, 
of whatever sort, is a fluid, transparent or opaque, laid upon the surface of 
the base. Caught up by a brush, it flows, sluggish but reliable, and hardens 
to a firm, flat coating. Where the brush moves, the nerves react and persuade; 
this viscid liquid registers the craftsman's sensations as they are transferred 
to his task. Yet it does so on its own terms. It remain obstinately an external 
covering. Even when applied layer after layer, and carved, its concluding 
form is dictated by the foundation; it is always, in short, a facing. We must 
look upon it with somewhat different eyes than those with which we look 
at sculpture, painting, architecture, or works in a self-sufficient medium such 



as wood, the metals, glass or cloth. Lacquer-work, when more than simply a 
gloss, is absolute decoration. It is an ornamental accessory enhancing the 
beauty of its foundation which, otherwise, would be uniformly practical. 
Many modem designers have so stripped their work of ornament that it is 
skeletal, on the wholesome theory that after the reckless dissipation of the 
Victorian and Edwardian eras an austere aesthetic convalescence was neces- 
sary. But their products leave us sensuously famished: our emotional natures 
cannot live to the full on so innutritions a diet. The senses need refreshment 
as well as discipline, and this is provided by enriching the plastic form. 
Lacquer-work is a means to an end, rather than an end in itself. It is a 
medium by which an object is outwardly illuminated, to glow and shimmer 
and blaze with gold and vermilion, nacre and terre-verte. And an essential 
part of the attraction is exerted by the surface, which even though gorgeous 
to an extravagant degree, exists defined and governed by the outlines, by the 
internal cast, by the implications of the core. 

China, that immemorial and spacious land, is the native soil of the lacquer 
tree, and of the art of lacquer-work. During the summer nights, the sap of 
the ch'i shu is collected in shell receptacles, and then, either semi-fluid or 
dried, is purified and strained to an even consistency. To what far-away 
experiments in the almost legendary dynasties of early China we owe the 
discovery of lacquer, no one can say. Confucius the sage is said to have 
written with black lacquer, and certainly by 4 B.C., as is attested by a dated 
box cover (No. 10), lacquering had become an extensive, highly integrated 
industry with a clear-cut division of labor. 

From the peasant harvester to the imperial artisan, the stages of prepara- 
tion and the ultimate creative execution are bewildering in number. The 
lacquer itself must be filtered and colored; the ground must be primed with 
from three to eighteen or twenty coats, each dried, smoothed, and polished; 
the object's shape, use and design must be conceived, and synthesized. 
Flaked gold and cinnabar, mother-of-pearl and gamboge, lamp-black and 
silver-dust tint the background and figures. The artist may practice in 
painted lacquer, hua ch'i, or in carved lacquer, tiao ch'i: in either case, he 
must contend with and surpass limitations. Two pieces of some of the earliest 
extant lacquer disclose this. The decoration on the sword and scabbard 
(No. 2, Fig. 1) of the Late Chou period, between the fourth and second cen- 
turies B.C., is carved wood: yet it is unmistakably suave and undulating, like 
the flux of the lacquer before it has solidified. The stylized birds on the 
inside and outside of a circular box (No. 3), denaturalized and abridged to 
the point of pure abstraction, dart and settle over the ground with a curbed 
abandon that comes close to flight. The decorative motifs of the earliest 
extant Chinese lacquers, on the boxes, cups, bowls, and other fragments 
(Nos. 4, 5, 8, 9, and 11) use animal or natural forms, birds, bears, cloud pat- 



terns, contrasted with geometrical borders. Their conformity to the outline 
and mold of the base is precise but supple, merry, incisive, and robust. 

Lacquers of the T'ang Dynasty (618-907 A.D.) — of extreme rarity — are 
less conventionalized; we know from specimens preserved in the Japanese 
imperial household collections that human figures and naturalistic animals 
were preponderant as motifs. The floral pattern, inlaid in silver on black 
lacquer, on the box cover (No. 12), is almost botanically to be identified. 
The uses of lacquer extended as the empire, whose western frontier was on 
the borders of Persia and the Caspian Sea: stirrups, lutes, swords, basket- 
work, boxes and mirrors, were covered with the material and inlaid with 
gold and silver foil, amber and turquoise. 

But this virility passed. The Sung Dynasty (960-1280) was peaceful, medi- 
tative, and given to strategy in politics rather than tactics in war. The art 
reflects it: subtlety and proportion replace overt emphasis — ceramics, ordi- 
narily, are monochrome, and depend for their effect upon elegance rather 
than splendor or verve. Two examples, a cup (No. 14), and a toilet box 
(No. 15), one wholly in black, the other in olive-green and red, rely for 
aesthetic appeal entirely upon purity of contour and the inspired propriety 
with which elements are composed. 

The Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) is the period in which the "modern" his- 
tory of China begins. It was an era of elaboration, in commerce and society 
no less than art. Lyricism gives way to ornament, richness supplants moder- 
ation. But the sensitivity of the artist does not decline. His technique, in 
both painted and carved lacquer, approaches the incredible. Design, though 
fulsome and sometimes aggravated with figures, always rejects the mannered 
or the coarse. Lacquer is carved with a soft, limber outline that spreads 
easily over furniture and the surfaces of every imaginable object. Or it is 
inlaid, producing resplendent patterns of dragons and phoenixes. To what 
lengths technique can be carried without preciosity, how far complication 
of design may go without becoming muddled, may be seen in the cabinet 
(No. 16, Fig. 2) and footstool (No. 18), both probably made in Peiping during 
the reign of Yung-lo (1403-1425). Under this emperor and his successor but 
one, Hsiian-te (1426-1436), the culmination of lacquer-working was reached. 
If to our artificially functionalized modem taste it seems over-occupied, it is 
matchless if regarded as the supreme envelopment of structure by surface, 
in which neither one digresses into distortion. The three hundred years of 
the Ming Dynasty see little change but that from soft to hard, clipped out- 
lines, but from imaginative facility to cramped virtuosity is only a step, and 
usually the first step into breakdown. During the reign of Ch'ien-lung 
(1736-1796), though craftsmanship stays admirable, formal decorum is want- 
ing, planes are crowded and outlines smothered or trespassed. Chinese art, 
when contrasted with that of its neighbour Japan, discloses one characteristic 



that unites the beginning and end with more than historical coherence. This 
is its conservative but inquiring vitahty, at once earnest, good-natured, and 
fastidious. The Chinese, of all the Far Eastern peoples, are the only ones 
to have produced true philosophers; by their study of man's relation to 
reality, they have succeeded in making their art a point of contact between 
the two. 

Perhaps in the sixth century A.D., with the introduction of Chinese immi- 
grants and the importation of the Buddhist creed, the craft of the lacquerer 
reached Japan. Brought in from the mainland, the Rhus vernicifera has not 
been found, uncultivated, in the islands. Though not indigenous, lacquer 
at once became preeminently a Japanese metier. There must be, indeed, 
subjective reasons for the appeal of this medium; numerous though the steps 
in the manufacture of Chinese lacquer were, the Japanese multiplied them, 
carrying each of the thirty-five operations to the farthest possible finish. The 
progress from the wooden base to completed panel may be seen in the techni- 
cal section of the exhibition: the procedure cannot be expounded here. But 
Japanese lacquer illustrates one quality the race maintains beyond all others, 
a genius for detail. Until the Era of the Meiji (1868-1912) society, religious 
life, and economy were administered by an extraordinarily elaborate and 
accrete system of etiquette and rank; canons established were amended and 
passed on — seldom, if ever, discarded. The Japanese artisan, with his 
instinctive respect for minutiae, promotes faultlessness of execution rather 
than comprehensively integrated design. Further, the frugal life of the 
average Japanese has cultivated a taste for magnificence when materials and 
purpose are furnished. His household gear may be humble, but the equip- 
ment of the aristocrat is superb. 

An idea of the character of early Japanese lacquer may be had from the 
tray (No. 59), with a design and technique copied from the sutra box in the 
Ninnaji monastery near Kyoto, a work of the beginning of the tenth century. 
Birds with human faces play on musical instruments, surrounded by floral 
and cloud patterns in gold and silver on a black ground. The objects shown 
in the Japanese section of the exhibition range chronologically from the 
mid-fifteenth century (No. 60) to the late nineteenth century, and include 
works by, or in the style of the artists Koyetsu (1558-1637) (Nos. 61 and 62), 
Korin (1658-1716) (No. 63), Ritsuo (1663-1747) (Nos. 64, 65, and 66), and the 
last of the great pre-"enlightenment" artists, Shibata Zeshin (1807-1891) 
(Nos. 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, and 114). 

It would be pointless to attempt to single out more than a few pieces for 
remark: each is a masterwork. Yet the profusion of techniques and uses 
may be inferred by contrasting a saddle and stirrups of the Tokugawa Period 
(1615-1868) (No. 81) with a black-on-black lunch box (No. 75), or a double 
gourd-shaped box (No. 66) with a writing box (No. 72), so lavishly inlaid 



with mother-of-pearl that the black lacquer ground has almost disappeared. 
Outstanding, however, among the pieces is the Taka-No-Bunko, or falcon 
box (No. 78, Fig. 3), made between 1770 and 1820 by one of the Koma 
school of artists for the imperial family. It is a container for the trappings 
of the imperial hunting-falcon, and might have been only a leather bag. 
But instead the artist has taken an inclusive theme and left no part of the 
surface uncovered by it. The falcon stands haughty and alert upon his perch; 
quail feed, meek inferiors whom the reigning bird would not even conde- 
scend to attack. On the inside are weeds and flowers, the plants growing in 
the fields through which the hunting-party rides; the tray has a basket of 
flowers and the falcon-wand, representing the four seasons and authority, 
for the hunt and the imperial power are not confined to a portion of the 
year, and sway even aerial princes. The sumptuousness, the finesse, the 
well-nigh numbing splendor of this piece are obvious; yet fine sharp lines, 
and an unprecedented number of materials and finishes are merged on a 
shape never overwhelmed, with a subtle theme that unifies each detail. 

If the Chinese is a philosopher, whose thought adjusts man to the world 
through imposed generalities, the Japanese is a precisian, who amplifies his 
life with particulars. These are held together by a tenacious sense of pro- 
portion resistant to the trivial or the grandiose. The Japanese is conven- 
tional, but his conventions are so ineradicable that they never challenge: 
they suggest as well as require. His decoration does not supply thought, but 
evokes it. The labor of the artisan is complete when an allusion is placed 
before the eye, in a form which intimates that the spectator must garnish 
the symbols further from his own imagination. It is literary, not abstract. 
In the arts of China and Japan — apparently similar, but actual polarities — 
two visions of life are revealed. The lacquered surfaces fashioned in Peiping 
or Kyoto glow with knowledge of universal ideas and individualized par- 
ticles: between the two we may answer nearly every aesthetic question that 
can be posed. 

The insect product is a somewhat less stable and lustrous finish than 
the vegetable resin. It will not dry to the same temper, nor fuse so many 
pigments. Decoration applied with it throughout the East Indies and India 
is of a different calibre. Surfaces of household utensils (No. 124), boxes 
(No. 125), bowls (Nos. 127, 128, and 129) and other gear (Nos. 130, 131, 132, 
and 133) are gay and shiny, but the lacquer (really a variety of sealing-wax) 
is opaque and solid. Thus the designs — geometrical, floral, or narrative — 
resemble painting in tempera: there is slight, if any, internal radiation. 
Instead of the polished layers of Chinese and Japanese lacquer, a few dense 
coats make the colored areas more concrete; the relatively greater thickness 
of the medium, often modelled underneath with gesso, gives the impression 
of a veneer rather than a glaze. This quality too aflfects the style, and not 

8 




Fig. 1 — Scabbard Decoration; lacquered wood 

China, late Eastern Chou Dynasty, about 3rd century B.C. 
Lent by Fritz Lo^v-Beer 







Fig. 2 — Cabinet; inlaid lacquer 

China, probably Peiping; Ming D\ nasty, probably period o£ Vung-lo (1403-1-125) 
Lent by Fritz Low-Beer 





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adversely: pattern, the distribution of bounded spots and patches of color, 
is fostered. Pattern, on which the eye cannot come to rest but wanders from 
symbol to episode and from mathematical figure to flowers and clusters of 
birds, is compressed within the panels of the eighteenth century Persian 
doors (No. 138, Fig. 4) and the book-covers (Nos. 135, 136, and 141). The 
former are a teeming fairyland of brocade-clad figures and agile beasts, 
embraced by willows, roses, and cypress trees, or twined arabesques. A 
thousand and one incidents are related by a teller of stories no less ingenious 
and no less vivacious than Scheherazade. 

When the first semi-mystical wave of curiosity that propelled the sixteenth- 
century navigators around the world had subsided, and conquest and com- 
merce brought the yield of Indies to Europe, lacquer appeared in the Dutch 
and English markets. By the end of the eighteenth centuiy "japanning" and 
"lacker-wares" had become a business and a fashion; the ornate finale of the 
Ch'ing Dynasty purveyed cabinets (No. 50), ceramics, and textiles in ever- 
increasing number. Expense caused local demand, and since the original 
materials, much less labor, were unprocurable, copies and paraphrases in 
imitation lacquer were made. 

European lacquer is no more than opaque copal varnish mixed with 
mineral pigments and overlaid with a final film of transparent shellac. But 
we include it for two reasons: it is called lacquer, and it is yet another way of 
conserving and embellishing a surface. To the eighteenth-century European 
surface was more eloquent than structure. A glistening screen of manners 
hid the germinating uproar of the industrial revolution from noble eyes for 
a full hundred years. We must not think, though, that the furnishings of 
this period were shoddy or defective: their craftsmanship is exquisite. The 
mirror-frames (No. 145), secretaries (No. 146), tables (No. 149), chairs (No. 
148) and cases (No. 173, Fig. 5) punctuated with chinoiserie anecdotes or 
garlands of flowers, if not so arduously made as the Oriental, are just as 
comely. As to finish, (the brothers Martin so bettered their varnish that 
vernis Martin is now a generic term for French eighteenth-century lacquer) 
visually it stands comparison with the most select Oriental work (Nos. 163 
and 164). Snuff-boxes, boites-necessaires, carnets-de-hal, all the bewitching 
trinkets which gave European society its peculiar charm, were decked out 
with sentimental scenes, blithe scallops and twirls of foliage, and other cheer- 
ful concoctions. In these accessories, and their superficial coating, we can see 
the inherent difference between true and false lacquer. Genuine vegetable 
lacquer cannot be coerced into effects not subsistent within it. It is a means 
of investing a surface with profound depths, unaided by perspective or 
illusionism. European imitations are really films of pigment which stress, 
rather than decrease, the planes to which they are applied. Thus lacquer 
in European decoration occurs when form is of less moment than illustra- 



tion. Tole ware, or painted metal varnished (Nos. 150, 152, and 162), in- 
cluded by courtesy in the domain of lacquer, is at the extreme end of the 
array. Dislodged from frames, pictures are set forth on the metal ground: the 
surface is conditioned only by the outline of the piece or by an arbitrary 
painted border. Lacquering, japanning, was an industry, and whatever is 
made by a machine, or a mechanized human being, loses the vital emphasis 
of hand workmanship. This is not a romantic idea: no apparatus can con- 
dense the volatile essences of the human feelings as purely as the brush or 
the chisel, refining a substance to its last intensity. 

Against that of China, Persia, and Japan, the lacquer work of Mexico and 
South America seems garish or clumsy. The Incas and the Aztecs were 
perhaps too obsessed with architectural permanence to fret about the life- 
time of a bowl. Their woods were harder and more plentiful. But the Cuzco 
Incas of the central Peruvian highlands, despite the fact that their keros 
(Nos. 177, 178, 179 and 180) were whittled from ironwood and caoba, deco- 
rated them with files of figures and bands of flowers. One of these goblets 
is a historic curio (No. 179), for among the procession of the topmost band 
is a negro in Spanish dress, a lone displaced person flanked by conquista- 
dors. The great tray (No. 182, Fig. 6), a Mexican work of about 1550, is 
nearly unique. This piece, and its contemporary descendants are primitive 
if you will. Yet quaint or flashy, they have a kinship to the sake-cups and 
bowls of the Orient: the medium does not mimic another and the design 
does not violate its confines. 

A recent aesthetic conviction has tried to expurgate decoration of the 
dishonest and tawdry, of the nightmare of incongruous affectation resulting 
from the jigsaw and the lathe. To determine what qualities in a given 
material could be recognized as implicit, to chasten the frantic pretension of 
late nineteenth century ornament became a belligerent cause. Cleanliness 
and order were wrongly made synonymous with flatness, a level exactitude 
that is virtuous but cold. Solace of some kind for the eye was unavoidable. 
And the reevaluation of natural materials led once more to lacquer as a 
humanizer for the machine a habiter. The work of Jean Dunand, a copper- 
smith by profession (Nos. 192 to 201, Fig. 7) is unashamedly decorative: from 
its strictness of area, outline and fidelity to the surface, it embodies much 
of the new respect for economy. The Occidental make-up was never one to 
accept formalism indefinitely, and in the screen by Pierre Bobot (No. 206, 
Fig. 8), made with Oriental materials by a French artist, the unfaltering 
craft of a Zeshin has been brought to bear upon the architectural lordliness 
of the "Place du Carrousel." Here at last in contemporary decoration are 
the minuteness, the deep luminous bloom, the logical but instinctive 
arrangement that emerge from a surface converted by a feeling hand into an 
enduring record of its inspiration. Everett P. Lesley, Jr. 

10 



CATALOGUE 



(The numbers set in parentheses after the descriptions of the objects 
refer to the owners of the objects, as shown in the list of Contributors 
to the Exhibition printed on page 16) 



CHINA AND KOREA 

1. Roundel, probably sword-pommel decora- 
tion; lacquered wood; late Eastern Chou 
Dynasty, about 3rd century B.C. (14) 

2. Scabbard and sword; lacquered wood, iron 
blade; late Eastern Chou Dynasty, about 
3rd century B.C. (14) 

3. Cylindrical box; lacquered wood; late East- 
ern Chou Dynasty, 3rd century B.C. (14) 

4. Cover for a vessel; lacquered wood and 
bronze; Changsha, late Eastern Chou Dy- 
nasty, about 300 B.C. (14) 

5. Stemmed vessel; lacquered wood; Chang- 
sha, late Eastern Chou Dynasty, 3rd-2nd 
centuries B.C. (14) 

6. Cylindrical vessel; lacquered wood and 
bronze; Changsha, early Han Dynasty, 
about 2nd century B.C. (14) 

7. Box; lacquered wood; Changsha, early Han 
Dynasty, about 2nd century B.C. (14) 

8. Bowl; lacquered wood; Changsha, early 
Han Dynasty, about 2nd century B.C. (14) 

9. Circular box; lacquered wood; Changsha, 
early Han Dynasty, about 2nd century B.C. 
(14) 

10. Box cover; lacquer over hemp; Han Dy- 
nasty, 4 B.C. (14) 

11. Set of toilet boxes; lacquer over cloth; Han 
Dynasty, 1st century A.D. (14) 

12. Box cover; lacquered wood, silver inlay; 
T'ang Dynasty (618-907) (14) 

13. Pierced decorative fragment; lacquered 
wood; probably Chii-lu-hsien, Sung Dy- 
nasty (960-1280) (14) 

14. Six-lobed cup; green and red lacquer over 
cloth; probably Chii-lu-hsien, Sung Dy- 
nasty (960-1280) (14) 

15. Toilet box; black lacquer over cloth; prob- 
ably Chu-lu-hsien,Sung Dynasty (960-1280) 
(14) 

16. Cabinet; inlaid lacquer; probably Peiping, 
Ming Dynasty, early 15th century, prob- 
ably period of Yung-lo (1403-1425) (14) 

17. Circular box; cinnabar lacquer; probably 
Peiping, Ming Dynasty, probably period of 
Yung-lo (1403-1425) (14) 

18. Footstool; cinnabar lacquer; probably 
Peiping, Ming Dynasty, probably period of 
Yung-lo (1403-1425) (14) 

19. Circular box; cinnabar lacquer; probably 
Peiping, Ming Dynasty, probably period of 
Yung-lo (1403-1425) (14) 

20. Circular box; black and gold lacquer over 
red; probably Peiping, Ming Dynasty, 
probably period of Yung-lo (1403-1425) 
(14) 

21. Circular box; cinnabar lacquer; probably 
Peiping, Ming Dynasty, probably period of 
Yung-lo (1403-1425) (14) 



22. Circular box; cinnabar lacquer; probably 
Peiping, Ming Dynasty, probably period of 
Yung-lo (1403-1425) (14) 

23. Rectangular box; three-toned gold lacquer 
with mother-of-pearl inlay; probably Peip- 
ing, Ming Dynasty, early 15th century (14) 

24. Small circular box; red inlaid lacquer; 
probably Peiping, Ming Dynasty, mark 
and period of Hsiian-te (1426-1436) (14) 

25. Decorative panel; cinnabar lacquer; prob- 
ably Peiping, Ming Dynasty, mark and 
period of Hsuan-te (1426-1436) (14) 

26. Circular box; inlaid gold, red and green 
lacquer; probably Peiping, Ming Dynasty, 
early 15th century (14) 

27. Circular box; cinnabar lacquer; Ming Dy- 
nasty, about 1500, probably period of 
Hung-chih (1488-1506) (14) 

28. Dish; inlaid lacquer; probably Peiping, 
Ming Dynasty, mark and period of Chia- 
ching (1522-1567) (14) 

29. Circular box; cinnabar lacquer; probably 
Peiping, Ming Dynasty, mark and period 
of Chia-ching (1522-1567) (14) 

30. Circular box; cinnabar lacquer; probably 
Peiping, Ming Dynasty, probably period 
of Chia-ching (1522-1567 ) (14) 

31. Bowl and stand; carved lacquer, alternate 
layers of black and red; probably Peiping, 
Ming Dynasty, 16th century (14) 

32. Plate or cup stand; brownish-red lacquer; 
probably Peiping, Yuan Dynasty (1280- 
1368) or Ming Dynasty, 16th century (14) 

33. Bowl; cinnabar lacquer, silver lined; prob- 
ably Peiping, Ming Dynasty, 16th century 
(14) 

34. Cup; cinnabar lacquer, silver lined; prob- 
ably Peiping, Ming Dynasty, late 16th cen- 
tury (14) 

35. Oblong box; "Guri" lacquer; Ming Dy- 
nasty (14) 

36. Bowl; red top "Guri" lacquer; Ming Dy- 
nasty (14) 

37. Plate; cinnabar lacquer; probably Peiping, 
Ming Dynasty, mark (1592) and period of 
Wan-li (1573-1620) (14) 

38. Box; inlaid lacquer; probably Peiping, 
Ming Dynasty, mark (1619) and period of 
Wan-li (1573-1620) (14) 

39. Covered bowl; black lacquer, mother-of- 
pearl inlay; Ming Dynasty, mark and pe- 
riod of Wan-li (1573-1620) (14) 

40. Oblong box; black lacquer, brass; prob- 
ably Peiping, Ming Dynasty, mark (1580) 
and period of Wan-li (1573-1620) (14) 

41. Circular box; black and painted lacquer, 
mother-of-pearl inlay; Ming Dynasty, late 
16th century (14) 

42. Circular box; marbled lacquer; late Ming 
Dynasty, 16th-17th centuries (14) 

11 



43. Vase; lacquered pewter; late Ming Dynasty 
(14) 

44. Box; black and colored lacquered brass; 
Ming Dynasty, mark (1633) and period of 
Ch'ung-chen (1628-1644) (14) 

45. Oblong box; black and gold-flecked lac- 
quer with mother-of-pearl; 17th-18th cen- 
turies (14) 

46. Desk on stand; lacquered wood; Ch'ing 
Dynasty, early 18th century (6) 

47. Bowl; red lacquer exterior; Ch'ing Dy- 
nasty, period of Ch'ien-lung (1736-1796) 
(14) 

48. Rectangular box; inlaid lacquer; probably 
Peiping, Ch'ing Dynasty, mark and period 
of Ch'ien-lung (1736-1796) (14) 

49. Presentation box; cinnabar lacquer; Ch'ing 
Dynasty, period of Ch'ien-lung (1736-1796) 
(6) 

60. Cabinet; incised lacquer; Ch'ing Dynasty 
or Coromandel, late 17th century; stand; 
gilt gesso on wood; England, about 1680 
(18) 

51. Teapot; brown lacquered pewter; Ch'ing 
Dynasty (1644-1912) (14) 

52. Tray; brown lacquered wood; Ch'ing Dy- 
nasty (1848), period o£ Tao-kuang (1821- 
1851) (14) 

53. Box; lacquered papier-mich^ and gilded 
wood; Ch'ing Dynasty, 19th century (6) 

54. Box; black lacquer, mussel-shell inlay; 
Ch'ing Dynasty, 19th century (9) 

55. Circular box; "Guri" lacquer; Ch'ing Dy- 
nasty, 19th century (9) 

56. Oblong box; carved brownish-red lacquer; 
Korea, probably 16th century (14) 

57. Oblong box; black lacquer, mother-of- 
pearl inlay; Korea, 16th century (14) 

58. Circular box; brown lacquer, mother-of- 
pearl inlay; Korea, 16th century (14) 

JAPAN 

59. Tray; lacquered wood; by Koshichi Tomita 
(1857-1910) (16) 

60. Writing brush; cinnabar lacquer; mid- 
15th century (16) 

61. Ko Bako, incense box; lacquer, pottery, 
porcelain and mother-of-pearl; style of 
Koyetsu (1558-1637), about 1675 (17) 

62. Suzuri Bako, writing-box; simulated tor- 
toise-shell ground; attributed to Koyetsu 
(1558-1637), but probably mid-18th cen- 
tury (7) 

63. Suzuri Bako, writing-box; gold lacquer, 
lead inlay; by Korin (1658-1716) (7) 

64. Kashi Bako, cake box; colored lacquer and 
mother-of-pearl; by Ritsuo (1663-1747) (7) 

65. Hanging panel; gold and colored lacquer; 
by Ritsuo (1663-1747), about 1700 (17) 

66. Double gourd-shaped box; lacquered 
wood; by Ritsuo (1663-1747), 1740 (5) 

67. Ryoshi Bako, manuscript box; gold lac- 
quer and lead; probably Sotatsu school, 
about 1700 (7) 

68. Ryoshi Bako, manuscript box; gold lac- 
quer and pewter; Ikan Ikambari school, 
about 1700 (7) 



Picnic set; gold lacquer on wood; early 
18th century (5) 

Suzuri Bako, writing box; black, gold and 
red lacquer; early 18th century (7) 
Suzuri Bako, writing box; black and red 
lacquer; school of Yosei, early to mid- 
18th century (7) 

Suzuri Bako, writing box; lacquer and 
mother-of-pearl; mid-lSth century (7) 
Suzuri Bako, writing box; gold and brown 
lacquer; mid-18th century (7) 
Ryoshi Bako, manuscript box; gold lac- 
quer; mid-18th century (7) 
Bento Bako, lunch box; black-on-black lac- 
quer; by Gyuko-Sen, mid-18th century (7) 
Ko Bako, incense box; gold and black lac- 
quer; about 1750 (7) 

Reliquary; gold and black lacquer, mother- 
of-pearl; by Koma Kiuhaku, late 18th cen- 
tury (7) 

Taka-No-Bunko, falcon box; gold lacquer; 
Koma school, between 1770 and 1820 (7) 
Suzuri Bako, writing box; black and col- 
ored lacquers imitating metals; about 
1790 (7) 

Ko Bako, incense box; gold and colored 
lacquer; between 1790 and 1800 (7) 
Saddle and stirrups; gold lacquer on wood; 
late 18th century (5) 

Inro with netsuke; carved lacquer; late 
18th century (6) 

Yagura Dokei, clock and stand; lacquered 
wood; late 18th century (6) 
Koto, musical instrument; lacquered wood; 
late 18th-early 19th centuries (5) 
Suzuri Bako, writing box; gold lacquer; 
late 18th-early 19th centuries (5) 
Box; gold-flecked lacquer; about 1800 (9) 
Box in pagoda form; gold and cinnabar 
lacquer, mother-of-pearl inlay; about 
1800 (7) 

Ko Bako, incense box; gold and cinnabar 
lacquer, mother-of-pearl inlay; by Gyoku- 
Rin, Koma school, about 1800 (7) 
Tea bowl, cover, and stand; black and gold 
lacquer, red interior; about 1800 (7) 
Tan Zaku Bako, poem paper holder; gold 
lacquer and ivory; about 1800 (7) 
Tea kettle; silver with lacquer stand; 
about 1800 (7) 

Mask box; colored lacquer, fret-work de- 
sign; about 1800 (7) 

Ko Bako, incense box; black, gold and 
colored lacquer; by Mori Kazu-Kyoto, 
about 1800 (7) 

Gourd-shaped netsuke; Guri lacquer; about 
1820 (7) 

Bento Bako, lunch box; gold and tortoise- 
shell lacquer and lead; by Hoitsu (1767- 
1829), about 1820 (7) 

Ko Bako, incense box; gold lacquer and 
mother-of-pearl; by Hokkio Komin Tsu- 
kuru (P-186S) (7) 

Double box in the form of a plum 
and persimmon; colored lacquer; about 
1840 (7) 



12 



98. Compartment box and cover; lacquered 
wood; early 19th century (6) 

99. Yatate, traveler's writing case; black per- 
simmon wood, lacquer and silver; about 
1850 (7) 

100. Kodogu Bako, incense game set; gold lac- 
quer and bronze; about 1850 (7) 

101. Ko Bako, incense box; gold lacquer; about 
1850 (7) 

102. Ko Bako, incense box; gold lacquer, 
mother-of-pearl inlay; about 1850 (7) 

103. Ko Bako, incense box; black and gold lac- 
quer and silver; probably made by Sho- 
min, about 1850 (7) 

104. Ko Bako, incense box; gold lacquer with 
brocade pattern; about 1850 (7) 

105. Ko Bako, incense box; black lacquer, gold 
and silver leaf, and mother-of-pearl; about 
1850 (7) 

106. Ko Bako, perfume box; gold and colored 
lacquer; about 1860 (7) 

107. Suzuri Bako, writing box; black and gold 
lacquer; probably by Nakayame Komin, 
about 1860 (7) 

108. Six pictures; a) a parrot perched on a 
branch of a tree; b) a horned beetle and 
a bee; c) a badger disguised as a monk re- 
clining on a table; d) a spray of fruiting 
vine; e) a mask and whip used in the 
bugaku dance "Ranryo-o"; /) a landscape 
showing a temple gate and houses among 
hills; lacquer on sized paper; by Shibata 
Zeshin (1807-1891) (16) 

109. Picnic box; lacquered wood; by Shibata 
Zeshin (1807-1891) (7) 

110. Bonsai, box for tools; gold, black and red 
lacquer; by Shibata Zeshin (1807-1891) (7) 

111. Tray; dark green, red and gold lacquer; 
by Shibata Zeshin (1807-1891) (7) 

112. Four trays; honey-colored Shunkei lac- 
quered wood; by Shibata Zeshin (1807- 
1891) (7) 

113. Fruit tray; red and green lacquer; by Shi- 
bata Zeshin (1807-1891) (7) 

114. Three sake cups; dark green and black 
lacquer; by Shibata Zeshin (1807-1891) (7) 

115. Dish; lacquered wood; 19 century (6) 

116. Dish; lacquered wood; 19th century (6) 

117. Cup; lacquered wood; 19th century (6) 

118. Cup; lacquered wood; 19th century (6) 

119. Inro; gold lacquer, bronze and ivory; 19th 
century (9) 

120. Inro; gold and black lacquer, silver, and 
ivory; 19th century (9) 

121. Inro; gold lacquer, glass, and ivory; 19th 
century (9) 

122. Box; gold and black lacquer; 19th cen- 
tury (9) 

123. Box; gold-flecked lacquer, mussel-shell in- 
lay; I9th century (9) 

INDONESIA, INDIA AND PERSIA 

124. Two spoons; lacquered wood; Burma, 
early 19th century (6) 

125. Box for betel nuts; lacquered wicker-work; 
Burma, late 19th-early 20th centuries (5) 

126. Box for betel nuts; lacquered cloth (?); 
Karen, Burma, 20th century (1) 



127. Bowl; lacquered fibre; Karen, Burma, 20th 
century (1) 

128. Bowl; lacquered fibre; Burma, 20th cen- 
tury (1) 

129. Covered bowl; lacquered fibre; Burma, 
20th century (1) 

130. Box for rice; lacquered woven reeds; Siam, 
19th century (5) 

131. Book box; lacquered papier-mSch^; India, 
18th century (6) 

132. Writing case; lacquered papier-mSch^; 
India, 18th century (5) 

133. Fan; lacquered paper, gesso and wood; 
India, probably I8th century (5) 

134. Fragment of a panel; painted and lac- 
quered wood; Caucasus, Daghestan (?), 
12th-13th centuries (6) 

135. Bookcover; lacquered papier-mSchi^; Persia, 
late 17th century (17) 

136. Bookcover; lacquered papier-mSch^; Persia, 
18th century (17) 

137. Necessaire for cosmetics; lacquered papier- 
mSche with enamel and jewels; Persia, 
18th century (10) 

138. Pair of doors; lacquered wood; Persia, late 
18th century (24) 

139. Case with cover; lacquered papier-m5ch^; 
Persia, late ISth-early 19th centuries (15) 

140. Mirror case; lacquered papier-mach^; Per- 
sia, early 19th century (5) 

141. Bookcover; lacquered papier-mSch^; Persia, 
about 1836 (17) 

142. Bookcover; lacquered papier-mSch^; Persia, 
19th century (17) 

143. Bookcover; lacquered papier-mAch^; Persia, 
late 19th century (17) 

EUROPE, 17TH-I9TH CENTURIES 

144. Pair of mirrored hanging comer cabinets; 
lacquered wood; England, about 1710 (8) 

145. Mirror and frame; lacquered wood, glass; 
England, about 1710 (18) 

146 Dwarf secretaire; lacquered wood; Eng- 
land, 1710-1720 (13) 

147 Dressing mirror; lacquered wood; England, 
1715-1720 (6) . J u 

148. Pair of side chairs; lacquered wood; by 

Giles Grendev, England, about 1730 (8) 
149 Tripod table; lacquered wood; England, 
■ 1755-1760 (15) 

150. Tray; painted t61e with bronze gilt; Ponty- 
pool, England, about 1760 (6) 

151. Toilet mirror; lacquered wood; England, 
' about 1770 (6) 

152 Coffee urn; painted t61e; by Thomas 
Barker (1769-1847), Pontypool, England, 
about 1800 (6) . 

153 Sewing cabinet; lacquered and inlaid 
papier-mach^; England, about 1840 (6) 

154. Snuff-box; painted and lacquered papier- 
mach^; England, mid-19th century (6) 

155 Cigar-case; lacquered leather and papier- 
mach^; England, 1851 (3) 

156. Pair of covered jars; lacquered wood; 
France 1700-1725 (11) 

13 



157. Carnet-de-bal; 18th century Japanese lac- 
quer in gold mounts; France, about 1750 
(20) 

158. Carnet-de-bal; 18th century Japanese lac- 
quer in gold mounts; France, about 1750 
(20) 

159. Lady's writing - desk; lacquered wood; 
France, about 1750 (4) 

160. Snuff-box; Chinese lacquer in gold 
mounts; mounts by Francois Thomas Ger- 
main (1726-1791), Paris, France, 1754-1755 
(21) 

161. Bodkin-case; black lacquer with gold 
mounts; France, mid-18th century (21) 

162. Verriere; painted tole; France, about 
1765 (6) 

163. Snuff-box; vernis Martin with gold mounts; 
France, 1765-1766 (15) 

164. Carnet-de-bal; vernis Martin with gold 
mounts; Paris, France, 1768-1775 (15) 

165. Boite-necessaire; vernis Martin with silver 
mounts; France, about 1775 (6) 

166. Tea tray; lacquered wood; France, about 
1775 (11) 

167. Small cache-pot; painted tole; France, 
about 1780 (6) 

168. Snuff-box; 18th century Japanese lacquer 
mounted in gold and enamel; mounts by 
A. J. M. Vachette {maitre 1779), 1787 (21) 

169. Carnet-de-bal; lacquer with gilt mounts; 
France, late 18th-early 19th centuries (15) 

170. Two decorative roundels; vernis Martin on 
mahogany; France, late 18th century (6) 

171. Vase; painted tole and gilded pewter; 
France, about 1815 (6) 

172. Bottle case; lacquered wood; probably 
Holland, about 1715 (6) 

173. Case for a trophy cup; lacquered, painted 
and gilded wood; Augsburg, Germany, 
about 1771 (6) 

174. Cigarette box; lacquered papier-mach^; by 
F. A. Lukitin, Russia, 1840 (10) 

175. Easter egg; painted lacquer on papier- 
mache; by Peter Loukoutine, Russia, about 
1870 (21) 

176. Box, lacquered papier-mach^; by F. A. 
Lukitin, Russia, 1890 (10) 

SOUTH AMERICA AND MEXICO 

177. Kero; lacquered wood; central highlands, 
Peru, Cuzco Inca, late 15th century (23) 

178. Kero; lacquered wood; Peru, probably 
Cuzco Inca, late 15th century (22) 

179. Kero; lacquered wood; central highlands, 
Peru, Cuzco Inca, about 1535 (23) 

180. Kero; lacquered wood; Peru, 16th century 
(5) 

181. Dressing-box; lacquered and gilded wood; 
Pasto, Colombia, late 18th-early 19th cen- 
turies (1) 

182. Tray; lacquered wood; Mexico, about 
1550 (5) 

183. Bowl; lacquered gourd; Olinali, Mexico, 
about 1875 (5) 



184. Bowl; painted and lacquered gourd; Chia- 
pas de Carza, Chiapas, Mexico, about 1900 
(5) 

185. Tray; painted and lacquered wood; Mi- 
choac^n, Mexico, 20th century (12) 

186. Tray; lacquered wood; Michoac^n, Mex- 
ico, 20th century (12) 

187. Cigarette box; "thumbnail" lacquer on 
wood; OlinalA, Mexico, 20th century (12) 

188. Jicara, gourd bowl; painted and lac- 
quered gourd; Michoacin, Mexico, 20th 
century (12) 

189. Jicara, gourd bowl; painted and lacquered 
gourd; Michoacin, Mexico, 20th century 
(12) 

190. Plate; lacquered papier-mache (?); Mi- 
choacAn, Mexico, 20th century (1) 

191. Jicara, gourd bowl; lacquered gourd; Mi- 
choacAn, Mexico, 20th century (1) 



192. Pair of doors; lacquered wood; designed 
by Seraphin Soudbinin, executed by Jean 
Dunand (1877- ) Paris, France, 1925- 
1926 (6) 

193. Vase; lacquered metal; by Jean Dunand, 
(1877- ) France, 20th century (15) 

194. Panel: lacquered wood; designed by Paul 
Jouve (1880- ), executed by Jean Dun- 
and (1877- ), France, 20th century (15) 

195. Panel, "Singe au Bord de I'Eau"; lac- 
quered wood; by Jean Dunand (1877- ), 
France, 1925-1930 (19) 

196. Panel, "Singe dans le Feuillage"; lac- 
quered wood; by Jean Dunand (1877- ); 
France, 1925-1930 (19) 

197. Panel, "Groupe "; lacquered wood; by Jean 
Dunand (1877- ), France, 1925-1930 (19) 

198. Panel, "Singe Buvant"; lacquered wood; 
by Jean Dunand, (1877- ), France, 
1925-1930 (19) 

199. Panel, "Congai"; lacquered wood; by 
Jean Dunand (1877- ), France. 1925- 
1930 (19) 

200. Panel, "Baigneuse"; lacquered wood; by 
Jean Dunand (1877- ), France, 1925-1930 
(19) 

201. Panel, "Josephine Baker"; lacquered wood; 
by Jean Dunand (1877- ), France, 
1925-1930 (19) 

202. Box, "The Sleeping Tzarevna"; painted 
and lacquered papier-mSch^; by V. Katuk- 
hin, Palekh, U.S.S.R., 1945 (21) 

203. Box, "The Prince and Koschei the Sor- 
cerer"; painted and lacquered papier- 
mach^; by G. Brueev, Palekh, U.S.S.R., 
1946 (21) 

204. Box, "Autumn"; painted and lacquered 
papier-mSch^; by N. Khomiakova, Palekh, 
U.S.S.R., 1946 (21) 

205. Box, "Troika in a Blizzard"; painted and 
lacquered papier - mSch^; by Zinoviev, 
Palekh, U.S.S.R., 1949 (21) 

206. Screen, "La Place du Carrousel"; incised 
lacquered wood; by Pierre Bobot, Edition 
Leleu, Paris, France, mid-20th century (2) 



14 



SELECTED REFERENCES 

7rom the Cooper lAnion Libraries 



GENERAL AND TECHNICAL 

Charbonnier, Andr^. L'art de la laque, les 
techniques chinoises et japonaises retrouv^es. 
Gazette des Beaux Arts, ser. 6, v. 15, pp. 95- 
104, Feb. 1936. 

Dossie, Robert. The handmaid to the arts. 
London, Nourse, 1764. v. 1, pp. 479-508. 

Havard, Henry. Dictionnaire de I'ameuble- 
ment et de la decoration. 8 vols. Paris, 
Quantin, n.d. [ca. 1890]. v. 5, pp. 254-263. 

Koizumi, Gunji. Lacquer work. London, Pit- 
man, 1923. 

Stalker, John, and Parker, George. A treatise 
o£ japaning and varnishing, being a com- 
pleat discovery of those arts. Oxford, 1688. 

ORIENTAL 

Audsley, George A. The ornamental arts of 

Japan. 2 vols. New York, Scribner, 1883-84. 

V. 1, sect. 4. 
Bowes, James L. Japanese marks and seals. 

London, Sotheran, 1882. pp. 273-274 and 285- 

289. 
Cescinsky, Herbert. Chinese furniture. London, 

Benn, 1922. 
Cott, Perry B. A pair of Persian lacquered 

doors. Worcester Art Museum bulletin, v. 25, 

pp. 22-24, Spring, 1934. 
Desmoni, Martin J. Catalogue of the collection 

of Japanese lacquers of Martin J. Desmoni. 

New York, Priv. print., 1947. 
Gonse, Louis. L'art japonais. 2 vols. Paris, 

Quantin, 1883. v. 2, pp. 181-220. 
Home, Kenneth. Inro: Japanese lacquer for 

the collector. Antiquarian, v. 17, pp. 32-34, 

Sept. 1931. 
Low-Beer, Fritz, and Manchen-Helfen, Otto. 

Carved red lacquer of the Ming period. Bur- 
lington magazine, v. 69, pp. 166-172, Oct. 1936. 
Seguy, E. A. Les laques du Coromandel. Paris, 

L^vy, 1924. 
Symonds, Robert W. Furniture from the Indies. 

Connoisseur, v. 93, pp. 282-289, and v. 94, pp. 

38-44 and 111-119, May, July and Aug. 1934. 
Tomita, Kojiro. Lacquer pictures by Zeshin. 

Boston Museum of Fine Arts bulletin, v. 27, 

pp. 10-13, Feb. 1929. 
Victoria and Albert Museum. South Kensing- 
ton. Dept. of woodwork. Catalogue of 

Chinese lacquer. London, H. M. Stationerv 

off., 1925. 
Catalogue of Japanese lacquer. 2 vols. 

London, H. M. Stationery off., 1924-25. 



Wilenski, Reginald H. A note on two Burmese 
Buddhist figures. Apollo, v. 28, pp. 134-35, 
Sept. 1938. 

WESTERN: European 

Huntley, Richmond. A 17th century Dutch 
showpiece. American collector, v. 12, p. 5, 
Oct. 1943. 

Macquoid, Percy. A history of English furni- 
ture. 4 vols. London, Lawrence & Bullen, 
1904-08. V. 4, chapter 1. 

and Edwards, Ralph. The dictionary of 

English furniture. 3 vols. London, Country 
Life, 1924-27. v. 2, pp. 266-271. 

Molinier, Emile. Le mobilier au XVIIe et 
XVIIIe siMe. Paris, Livy, n.d. pp. 111-119. 

Slomann, Vilhelm. The Indian period of Euro- 
pean furniture. Burlington magazine, v. 65, 
pp. 112-126, 156-171, and 201-214, Sept.-Nov. 
1934, and v. 66, pp. 21-26, Jan. 1935. 

Symonds, Robert W. English furniture in the 
Chinese taste. Connoisseur, v. 97, pp. 89-94, 
Feb. 1936. 

The English japanner's trade: examples 

from the Geoffrey Hart collection. Con- 
noisseur, V. 100, pp. 235-245, Nov. 1937. 

Old English walnut and lacquer furniture. 

New York, McBride, 1923. 

Woodward, Celia. Lacquer furniture in Eng- 
land, 1660-1780. Antiquarian, v. 16, pp. 17- 
20, May, 1931. 

WESTERN: American 

American japanned furniture of the 18th cen- 
tury. Connoisseur, v. 108, pp. 210-213, Dec. 
1941. 

Downs, Joseph. American japanned furniture. 
Metropolitan Museum of Art bulletin, v. 35, 
pp. 145-148, July, 1940. 

Schaedel, Mary A. Peruvian keros. Magazine of 
Art, v. 42, pp. 17-19, Jan. 1949. 

WESTERN: Contemporary 

Gallotti, Jean. Quelques oeuvres r^centes de 

Jean Dunand. Art et Decoration, v. 61, pp. 

225-232, Aug. 1932. 
Lacquered propaganda. Arts and Decoration, 

v. 42, pp. 54-55, Feb. 1935. 
Rena, Maurice. The Palekh miniature; mod- 
ern interpretation of an 18th century art. 

Studio, V. 11, pp. 276-279, May, 1936. 
Tunstall, W. F. Pierre Bobot and his modem 

French lacquer. Studio, v. 134, pp. 112-113, 

Oct. 1947. 



15 



CONTRIBUTORS 

To the Exhibition 

The American Museum of Natural History (1) 

Baccarat and Porthault, Inc. (2) 

A. W. Bahr (3) 

A. AND R. Ball (4) 

The Brooklyn Museum (5) 

The Cooper Union Museum (6) 

Martin J. Desmoni (7) 

French and Company, Inc. (8) 

Gump's, San Francisco (9) 

Hammer Galleries, Inc. (10) 

Josephine Howell (11) 

Fred Leighton, Inc. (12) 

Prince Edward Joseph Lobkowicz (13) 

Fritz Low-Beer (14) 

The Metropolitan Museum of Art (15) 

Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Massachusetts (16) 

The New York Public Library (17) 

Frank Partridge, Inc. (18) 

The Rosenbach Company (19) 

Rosenberg and Stiebel, Inc. (20) 

A La Vieille Russie, Inc. (21) 

Count S. Colonna Walewski (22) 

John Wise, Ltd. (23) 

Worcester Art Museum (24) 



Technical Material Contributed by 

E. I. Du Pont de Nemours and Company 
KojiRO Tomita 



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